Sunday, May 24, 2020

Pepsi Analysis Pepsi Cola - 1328 Words

Abstract Pepsi-cola aimed to tap into the pulse of the prevailing counterculture movement of the 1970s. The company recruited a unique blend of artists and engineers under the banner of Experiments in Art and Technology. The Pepsi Pavilion project served as a experiment and a landmark that integrated social interactions, electronic media, performance art, and futuristic concepts that created mind-altering realities. The Pepsi Pavilion in Osaka, Japan was built for display and therefore had significant symbolic meaning attached. The designers of Pepsi Pavilion were attracted to the aesthetic radicalism brought about by the collaboration between the arts, sciences. The Pavilion was designed to provide viewers with the opportunity to shape their own reality from the interaction of art, technology through a variety of processes within the structure. Introduction In the late 1960s, Pepsi-Cola thought it wise to connect with the ongoing youth counterculture. The Osaka 70 Expo was the perfect opportunity for the American company to bolster its Brand. Pepsi executives were hoping to build the theme of â€Å"youth and community† into the exhibition. David Thomas, a Pepsi executive, explored the New York art scene and found a team of artists and engineers who later collaborated as E. A. T. a group of Artists designers and Engineers. The Pepsi Pavilion emerged as an intricate crossbreed of media technology, cybernetics and integrated design. The Osaka Expo ofShow MoreRelatedPepsi Analysis : Pepsi Cola Essay1481 Words   |  6 PagesPepsi competes head-to-head against Coca-Cola in one of the biggest rivalry in United States, the Cola Wars. Although the rivalry did not officially start until 1975, the two companies had been butting heads since the beginning of their respective origins. Although most people in their lifetimes only notice the Pepsi Globe, the Pepsi logo went through drastic changes going from a red signature, to a patriotic bottle cap, to finally a simplistic, Pepsi Globe. Each major logo change reflects eitherRead MoreSwot Analysis : Pepsi And Coca Cola1752 Words   |  8 PagesIntro/Comparative Financial Analysis Pepsi and Coca-Cola companies are among the biggest corporate competitors due to their similar products and target market. The two companies are the greatest competitors in the beverage industry compared to other firms in the global market. However, the financial performance of the two companies has been positive, which is essential for prospective investors intending to invest in the beverage industry. An investor should be informed by the financial performanceRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Coca Cola And Pepsi Co Essay1410 Words   |  6 Pages SWOT Analysis â€Å"Coca-Cola brands are available to consumers throughout the world. Today they account for 1.7 billion servings of all beverages consumed worldwide daily. Coca-Cola has the edge in the market and because they are first to capitalize on new consumer trends. They continue to focus on continuous operating improvements, and they are ever changing to meet market demands. Pepsi Co satisfies the needs of its customers with the wide variety of products offered. They alsoRead MoreThe Park On The Terrace Essay1857 Words   |  8 Pageswould reverse direction. The components of these floating islands could only be activated with the participation of the public, the environment designed cannot exist or be fully rationalized without the involvement of the visitor. A walk through the Pepsi Pavilion reveals a white tunnel at the edge of the dome and it is at this point where every visitor that walks in is handed a â€Å"walkie-talkie like handset† that can pick sounds from amplifiers under the floor. At the entrance, a tunnel descends intoRead MoreFinancial Analysis of Pepsi Co and The Coca Cola Company Essay850 Words   |  4 Pagesfinancial records of two major companies; Pepsi Co and The Coca Cola Company and decided which company is more financially sound. In order to make the best choice, I will look at the three financial statement analyses on each company and compare them. The three tools of financial statement analysis that I will review are the Horizontal Analysis which evaluates a series of financial statement data over a period of time. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the increase or decrease thatRead MoreFinals Project - Financial Analysis of Pepsi Co. and Coca-Cola1940 Words   |  8 PagesPepsi Co. and Coca-Cola’s Vertical, Horizontal, and Ratio Analysis XACC/280 Submitted by: Lataikeii Evans Date: April 8, 2011 Daneene Barton Arbitrating a company’s monetary physical stability inculpate their financial statements (income statements, balance sheets, and statement of cash flow). These statements must follow the GAAP standards. Sidewise from the statements that are involved in balancing a company or in my case comparing the financial stability of the two successful companies’Read MoreFinancial Analysis of Pepsi Co, Inc. and The Coca-Cola Companies1761 Words   |  8 PagesPerforming a financial analysis of a company allows an investor or creditor to fully understand the make-up of that particular company. For Pepsi Co, Inc. and The Coca-Cola Companies the below vertical and horizontal analysis along with selected ratios provide details on each company to allow comparison between them. Pepsi Co, Inc. shows a great deal of assets and property ownership while The Coca-Cola Companies net revenue is lower their net income is higher. The Pepsi Co, Inc. has more assetsRead MoreCase Analysis - Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2010582 Words   |  3 PagesCase Analysis – Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2010 Coke and Pepsi are two leading companies in the soft drink industry. They contend with each other during decades. The Cola Wars are a campaign of mutually-targeted television advertisements and marketing campaigns since the 1980s between soft drink manufacturers The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo. Historically, the soft drink industry has been so profitable. Porter’s Five- Forces Model of industry competition can define and analyze anRead MoreFinancial Analysis of Coca-Cola and Pepsi Co. Essay1940 Words   |  8 PagesPepsiCo and Coca-Cola are fierce competitors and according to their financial statements they are both healthy companies. Therefore I would invest in Coca-Cola if I had to make the decision because it has higher income, a stronger long-term debt to networking capital ratio, steadily rising net income per common share, and a climbing and high solvency ratio. PepsiCo still shows healthy growth and outperforms Coca-Cola in many areas. I will conduct a financial analysis of Coca-Cola and PepsiCo to identifyRead MoreRecommending a Marketing Mix for a Product or Service1604 Words   |  7 PagesTopic: Recommending a Marketing Mix for a Product or Service Executive Summary This report mainly talked about a product-Pepsi. In this report, the purpose was compared and contrasted which 4Ps is better to the Pepsi and wanted more people to buy it. The thesis was compare and contrasts the Pepsi with the competitor - Coca Cola. So the report needed find some information and interview some people. The key finding was that SWOT and 4Ps is very important to the product. And the key conclusion and

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Custody Court The Custody - 855 Words

Custody Court I decided to go through the courts to determine custody because of several reasons. The first reason was because my son’s father was on the birth certificate and, the police stated that if he took my son from me, it would be considered kidnapping. So, it was in essence to protect my son first. Secondly, it was part of the process of getting child support as well as my restraining order. The restraining order was done through the civil courts and, the originally gave me full custody temporarily until the actual custody process could begin. While, I was planning on going through the custody court at some time, I had to begin the process early because of several court standards. Before I was able to put my son on CCAP, I had to put his father on child support or else I would be noncompliant with their orders. Also, with the severity of the reasons for the restraining order, the judge believed that it was necessary for me to begin it immediately. But, going through the process, I understand why many young mothers like me do not go through the courts to deal with this manner. To start the custody paperwork, I had to go to the clerks for the information which told me that I had to pay a starters fee of over two-hundred and fifty dollars. Luckily, I had a fellow friend with me who is a family advocate whom knew how to wave the fees. There is a massive amount of paperwork to fill out such as parenting time, financial assets, and responsibilities. TheShow MoreRelatedCourt for Custody Essay723 Words   |  3 Pages| Court for Custody | | | Amy Burnside | 3/10/2013 | | A married couple, both addicted to drugs, is unable to care for their infant daughter. She is taken from them by court order and placed in a foster home. The years pass. She comes to regard her foster parents as her real parents. They love her as they would their own daughter. When the child is 9 yrs. old, the natural parents, rehabilitated from drugs, begin court action to regain custody. The case is decided in theirRead MoreSentencing Courts Have Given Enhanced Credit For Time Spent On Pre Custody1411 Words   |  6 PagesFacts In the past, sentencing courts have given enhanced credit for time-spent in pre-custody, which is usually at a rate of two days for every day of detention, however, â€Å"enhanced credit is not available if the person was denied bail primarily because of a prior conviction† (R. v. Safarzadeh‑Markhali, 2016 SCC 14 (CanLII)). In November 2010, Hamidreza Safarzadeh-Markhali â€Å"was arrested and charged with several offences† (R. v. Safarzadeh‑Markhali, 2016 SCC 14 (CanLII), par. 4). The bail judge madeRead MoreDiscussion. In Order For Nonparents To Gain Custody Of1109 Words   |  5 PagesDiscussion In order for nonparents to gain custody of children, they must establish a child-parent relationship; they must be able to rebut the presumption that the legal parent acts in the best interest of the child. Or.Rev.Stat.  §109.119 (2015). The nonparents can rebut this presumption by proving that the legal parent is either unwilling or unable to care for their child. Id. The petitioner for custody is or has been the child’s primary caretaker. Id. If relief is denied the circumstances willRead MoreFamily Law Is An Area That Concern About Legal Issues Involving1283 Words   |  6 Pages Family law is an area that concern about legal issues involving family relationships, such as marriage, divorce, adoption and child custody. Every country has its own family law and its typically influences by the issue, culture and religion in that country. In Malaysia, family law is divided into two categories; Islamic Family Law (Federal Territories) and the Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce). Malaysia is an Islamic country. Hence, this family law distinguishes between Muslims and non-MuslimsRead MoreLegal Writing Graded Project 2 - Petitioner1229 Words   |  5 Pages MEMORANDUM JOHN BRIGHT RESPONDENT Comes Petitioner, by counsel, and for her Memorandum states as follows: I. FACTS Sally Bright (Petitioner), filed for divorce and custody of 14 year old daughter, Chastity. John Bright (Respondent) also requested custody. The court ordered temporary custody of the minor child to Petitioner and visitation with Respondent every weekend. Petitioner will be moving to another part of the country to take a job. Respondent has realized he is gayRead MoreForensic Psychology And The Justice System1222 Words   |  5 Pagesevaluations that the forensic psychologist do is in Child custody. (Freedheim Weiner 2003). A Child custody evaluation is one the most complex and challenging evaluation in which forensic psychologist assess the parents and children. During custody dispute evaluators are required to assess multiple people such as parents, children, parents’ significant others. The child custody evaluations provide the court with information regarding what custody and visitation arrangement will be in favor of the childRead MoreThe Effects Of Remand Custody On Criminal Justice System1558 Words   |  7 PagesThe use of remand custody has been increasing significantly over the last decade. The length of time of an individual being placed in remand on custody is extended due to numerous factors. According to research and findings, the accused who is not being released on conditions is physically and mentally in pain during the period of waiting for the trial. The topic of the increased use of remand custody will be discussed in this essay, focusing on three key themes: describing the process of how individualsRead MoreChain Of Custody And Criminal Investigations And Judicial Outcomes Essay1400 Words   |  6 PagesThe importance and relevance of chain of custody to criminal investigations and judicial outcomes Chain of custody is defined by Saferstein (2015), as a sequential documentation, that shows custody, control, analysis, handling and nature of physical or electrical evidence. Chain of custody is a model that is utilised by the police during criminal investigations to demonstrate that the evidence has been handled in a manner that does not destroy the integrity of the evidence (Houck Siegel, 2015)Read MoreThe Debate On Marriage And Parenting Rights For Gay And1673 Words   |  7 Pagesthat the state has a right to favor heterosexual norms. However, these concerns are either unfounded or unjustly infringe on the rights of gay and lesbian couples. Consequently, there is no reason to prohibit gay or lesbian couples from obtaining custody of children. Proponents of the natural law ideology, a doctrine that states that moral standards that limit behavior are drawn from a natural order of the world, argue that homosexual parents undermine the laws of nature. The argument holds thatRead MoreNegative Effects Of Guardianship1745 Words   |  7 Pagesand child. Specific Population Impacted There are several populations impacted by guardianship. The most vulnerable population is the children themselves. Children are impacted because they are being taken out of their parent’s custody and being putting in the custody of a third party. The biological parents are impacted because they are no longer the primary caregivers to their children. Parents are not able to see children without an agreement with all parties which include guardian ad litem

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Argument Essay Topics Ideas - Is it a Scam?

Argument Essay Topics Ideas - Is it a Scam? What Is So Fascinating About Argument Essay Topics Ideas? It doesn't make a difference to us, whether you're too busy on the job concentrating on a passion undertaking, or simply tired of a seemingly infinite stream of assignments. At the exact same time, detecting cause and effect relationships isn't that easy in regards to the selection of a superior cause and effect essay topic. A wide variety of services. Use transition words in order to connect the paragraphs and produce the point flow. Usually, these kinds of essays aren't a timed, in-class writing assignment where you're attempting to win against the clock. Our crew of essay writers works with any sorts of academic papers for many decades. Argumentative writings is a particular sort of a paper. Knock out stress and possible mistakes with academic papers. The Secret to Argument Essay Topics Ideas Don't forget, proposal essays serve a purpose beyond academia. Because they are a type of argumentative essay, you want to be sure the essay is worthy of an argument. Argumentative essays are a few of the best that you can write as a student. An argumentative essay is a certain sort of academic writing. Writing a proposal essay isn't as difficult as it might sound, it is irrelevant the way your professor or teacher describes it. Young writers may try simple on-line citation generators which are typically at no charge. This guide to writing a college essay is a superb means to begin on your essay organizing journey! Here's What I Know About Argument Essay Topics Ideas When it has to do with writing an argumentative essay, the most crucial issue to do is to select a topic and an argument which you can really get behind. The second thing that you should take care of once you choose the title is to maintain in mind five varieties of argument claims. Clarify how you are going to address your topic, identify sub-arguments you must prove to produce your large argument true. When you are requested to decide on a great topic for your argument, start with something you're acquainted with. Choosing Argument Essay Topics Ideas An argumentative essay requires you to choose a topic and h ave a position on it. Moral argumentative essay topics are a few of the simplest to get carried away with. Choosing topics for argumentative essays is important for your general success. Recent argumentative essay topics that are related to society is going to do. Inspiration to make your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn't tricky to discover. Our experts allow you to comprehend what is needed when you're choosing proposal essay topics. As a result of this, many disagree on the way the laws should change (if they ought to change at all) and there are several topics to select from. All About Argument Essay Topics Ideas Also, you will find college essay ideas on our website! If as you are preparing a report you merely analyze specific literature, the essay demands an excellent penetration into the issue. It's important to select debatable argumentative essay topics since you need opposing points you can counter to your own points. Everyone would like to produce wonderful papers, get the greatest marks, and get the standing of a hardworking student. The Benefits of Argument Essay Topics Ideas Curriculum proposal topics is a means to try. Besides a good structure, you're going to need an argument, a strong thesis, an d strong research. Proposal essays are typical in company and science classes and professions, but are also beneficial for a range of distinct disciplines. To put it simply, a proposal essay identifies an issue and suggests a remedy to that issue. Argument Essay Topics Ideas Secrets Contrary to other types of essays, you're attempting to convince your reader of something. While you might have a notion which way you have to sail as a way to get to the island, if you don't know the best places to dig when you get there, it can be a long and frustrating treasure hunt. One of the greatest methods to change anybody's mind is with an emotional investment. When you're picking your topic, bear in mind that it's much simpler to write about something which you currently have interest ineven in case you don't know a good deal about it. Facts, Fiction and Argument Essay Topics Ideas In choosing your topic, it's frequently a good idea to start with a subject which you already have some familiarity with. Deciding on an emotional topic is also an excellent idea. This list of topics may offer a notion that you may get excited about. Look at these examples of superior topic sentences. This paragraph is quite important because it leaves the reader having the most immediate impression. At the conclusion of these list, you are going to discover links to a range of argumentative paragraphs and essays. Thus, it's important to read corresponding formatting guide. Keep a watch out for academic paper formatting whilst writing.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Within Essay Is An In Depth Nursing Analysis-Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Within This Essay Is An In-Depth Nursing Analysis? Answer: Introducation Within this essay is an in-depth analysis of the case of Rohan, a nine-year-old child, suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus as illustrated in scenario one of the tasks. For Rohan to keep a healthcare and sound living as a type 1 diabetes patient, he has categorical needs that must be met. These needs are among them cultural, social, and physical and psychological expectations. Due to his tender age, he requires special attention when meeting these needs so as to realize the intended sound and healthy life motive. Diabetes is a disease whose cure has not been established yet and thus only requires proper management and treatment. To grow healthier, Rohan needs to get plenty of physical exercises. The exercise is important in managing his condition(Boyd 2012, p. 167). Through physical exercise, his muscles and bones are strengthened hence reducing the risk of heart attack and other cancer types. Exercise would also help him gain better endurance, coordination, strength, and balance as well as increasing the levels of energy. Still, physical exercise is important in assisting the activities of insulin and blood sugar levels(Bulechek 2013, p. 268). Through exercise, Rohan will learn to manage any forms of stress and tension he could be undergoing hence improving on his moods and encouraging relaxation. In the social, cultural and psychological aspects, Rohan requires support from both the family members and his teachers at school. The support should be in the form of companionship as well as such services as food. The support helps in dealing with any complex situations that may arise(Hanas 2010, p. 369). Such support is important in the elimination of feelings of social isolation of the child by the family members. Nursing care priorities for Rohan Based on his health condition and the situation back at his home, the following would be the priorities of nursing care; Checking the blood sugar level: Rohans blood sugar level should be checked at least three times a day to ascertain that stability is maintained. The times of check would be as guided by the healthcare provider. Just before meals, the blood sugar level should range between 90 and 130 mg/dL while it should between 90 and 150 mg/dL when he is retiring to bed. Checks should also be done for the presence of ketone in his urine or blood(Hyde 2011, p. 547). For the case of Rohan, he has low blood sugar levels and in case the sugar levels go below 70 mg/dL then a corrective measure should be adopted. The measures would include eating foods that are rich in calories for example fruits and dairy products. Following the meal plan of the child: Rohan had a diabetes diet plan from the clinician which is rarely observed since his family is vegetarian. In the nursing care priorities in would be fundamental in adhering to the meal plan as provided by the healthcare provider. The meal plan is useful in keeping the blood sugar level of the child steady and therefore the nursing care would ensure the child does not skip any meals. Taking insulin without eating may lead to the blood sugar levels dropping too low. In following the meal plan as provided by the doctor it is important to keep track of the dietary intake of starch and sugar foods, give him high-fiber foods and low-sodium and low-fat foods. These foods keep in check the insulin levels(Boyd 2012, p. 201). Exercise: through exercise, his blood sugar level stabilizes hence it would be important to encourage Rohan to exercise for at least one hour for the better part of the week. The physical activities would strengthen his bones and muscles. Before and after the exercise his blood sugar levels should be checked. This would help in determining the health progress and any significant impacts of the exercise on his health. Physical exercise to a greater extent improves the health and well-being of the patient both physically and mentally as it relieves tension and stress(Burns 2012, p. 455). Strategies for developing a trusting relationship with Rohan At his tender age, Rohan needs to be convinced that what the doctors and the nurses are offering him are the best solutions to his problems. He may be having challenges understanding his situation and thus it becomes quite difficult to convince him that his disease is not curable. He is a school going boy and that translates aspirations of various achievements in his future life. In order to develop a trusting relationship when engaging Rohan, these strategies can be deployed: Family involvement: Making the nursing care services more of family-centered has the potential to develop a trusting relationship(Fitzpatrick 2011, p. 654). Rohan, just like any other child, is more familiar with his family members and believes that whatever they do to him cannot be with the intention of harming him. He would, therefore, be quick to adjust to the management and care plans when offered from the family members. The family is central in offering social support that is greatly required to manage type 1 diabetes mellitus in children. Through informational, emotional and physical support that the family would offer, Rohan would find value in him once again despite his medical condition(Colgrove 2014, p. 584). The family unit and interactions play a role in determining the long term outcomes including functional, physiological and psychosocial outcomes. This is because the communication and interaction patterns in the family are able to promote somatization in children. The parents and the other family members are as well supposed to be trained so as to be able to offer technical know-how support such as recording the blood sugar levels(Funnell 2015, p. 198). In this light, the family members will be able to have control of the medical condition of their son. All these family injections would build trust and confidence in Rohan regarding the quality of medical care he is receiving. Communication: Communication helps in building a connection between the nurse and the patient. Investing small time to build the rapport with the patient influences the level of compliance and thus leading to positive care management(Guthrie 2014, p. 378). In most cases, patients who do feel connected with their nurses never trust the services they are yet to receive. And therefore may not follow their instructions. Through communication, Rohan would feel that he is understood and that the services he is receiving are to the best of his interest. To improve the impact of the communication it would be important to include the family members as well thereby founding a relationship which is based on respect and trust. Through communication, the nurse would be able to get more information about the patient including his hobbies, or any other interests thereby putting him at less anxiety and easing his visit to the nurse. Rohan would treat the nurse as a friend and a helper who understand his life from this collaborative approach. When dispensing the care or treatment plans, the patient should be carefully listened to and his comments responded to accordingly in a way that ensures he is convinced and the confidence levels maintained high(Brook 2011, p. 530). Care Plan The nursing care plan for would be the risk for unstable levels of blood glucose. Unstable variations in the blood sugar levels may greatly compromise the quality of health of the patient. Among the risk factors for this care include; Failure to observe the diabetes management plan Stress Inadequate monitoring of blood glucose level Limited knowledge of management of type 1 diabetes mellitus Rejection of diagnosis The risk may be evidenced by the blood glucose levels being lower than the normal levels as the case of Rohan. The care plan aims at: Maintaining the blood sugar levels at normal levels Identification the factors that may cause the low and unstable levels of blood glucose Make verbal a comprehension of energy needs and balancing the body Verbalizing plans in the modification of the risk factors which would, in turn, prevent shifts in the levels of glucose The nursing intervention would be to evaluate the risks factors to unstable levels of glucose as well as assist the patient in coming up with mechanisms for preventing unstable blood sugar levels(Hyde 2011, p. 666). In evaluating the risks that contribute to unstable blood sugar levels, factors that may lead to the unstable levels in the patient would be determined. These factors may include such risk factors as any history of poor control of glucose, family history of diabetes, poor eating habits and lack of exercise/ poor exercise habits. The cultural and religious influence of Rohan on his diet would as well be important in determining the risk factors. How much responsible the patient is to his own health care will assist in the development of the healthcare plan. The plan would take into account his dietary practices in line with his religious and cultural practices(Hanas 2010, p. 690). In assisting the patient with preventive strategies against unstable blood glucose levels, finding out whether the patient can use the glucose monitoring device is important. The monitoring device is used in determining the levels of glucose and when properly used it helps in detecting when the levels of glucose become unstable(Kuiper 2016, p. 715). The patient would also be educated on the need to balance physical exercise and intake of food which help in inhibiting sudden rise or fall in blood sugar levels. A review of the intake of carbohydrates helps in stabilizing the blood sugar levels. The effectiveness of the nursing care plan is dependent on the outcome regarding the health of the patient. The plan would thus be effective if the desired outcomes are realized and the patient life improves. References Boyd, MA 2012, Psychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice, 4th edn, Lippincott Williams Wilkins, New York. Brook, CGD 2011, Brook's Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology, 6th edn, John Wiley Sons, London. Brown, JE 2013, Nutrition Through the Life Cycle, 5th edn, Cengage Learning, Chicago. Bulechek, GM 2013,Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)6: Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), 3rd edn, Elsevier Health Sciences, New York. Burns, CE 2012, Pediatric Primary Care - E-Book, 5th edn, Elsevier Healthcare Sciences, Cambridge. Colgrove, KC 2014, Prioritization, Delegation, Management of Care for the NCLEX-RN Exam, 9th edn, F.A. Davis, New Delhi. Fitzpatrick, JJ 2011, Encyclopedia of Nursing Research, Third Edition, 2nd edn, Springer Publishing Company, Salt Lake. Funnell, R 2015, Tabbner's Nursing Care: Theory and Practice, 7th edn, Elsevier Australia, Manchester. Hanas, R 2010, Type 1 Diabetes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: How to Become an Expert on Your Own Diabetes, 5th edn, Class Publishing Ltd, New York. Hyde, V 2011, Community Nursing and Health Care: Insights and Innovations, 3rd edn, CRC Press, Oxford. Kuiper, R 2016, Clinical Reasoning and Care Coordination in Advanced Practice Nursing, 4th edn, Springer Publishing Company, Manchester. MD, DRG 2014, Management of Diabetes Mellitus: A Guide to the Pattern Approach, Sixth Edition, 6th edn, Springer Publishing Company, London.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Jericho - The Archaeological Ruin in Palestine

Jericho - The Archaeological Ruin in Palestine Jericho, also known as Ariha (fragrant in Arabic) or Tulul Abu el Alayiq (City of Palms), is the name of a Bronze Age city mentioned in the book of Joshua and other parts of both the Old and New Testaments of the Judeo-Christian bible. The ruins of the ancient city are believed to be part of the archaeological site called Tel es-Sultan, an enormous mound or tell situated on an ancient lakebed north of the Dead Sea in what is today the West Bank of Palestine. The oval mound stands 8-12 meters (26-40 feet) tall above the lake bed, a height made up of the ruins of 8,000 years of building and rebuilding in the same place. Tell es-Sultan covers an area of about 2.5 hectares (6 acres). The settlement that the tell represents is one of oldest more or less continuously occupied locations on our planet and it is currently over 200 m (650 ft) below modern sea level. Jericho Chronology The most widely known occupation at Jericho is, of course, the Judeo-Christian Late Bronze Age one–Jericho is mentioned in both old and new Testaments of the Bible. However, the oldest occupations at Jericho are in fact much earlier than that, dating to the Natufian period (ca. 12,000–11,300 years before the present), and it has a substantial Pre-Pottery Neolithic (8,300–7,300 B.C.E.) occupation as well. Natufian or Epipaleolihic (10,800–8,500 B.C.E.) Sedentary hunter-gatherers living in large semi-subterranean oval stone structuresPre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) (8,500–7300 B.C.E.) Oval semi-subterranean dwellings in a village, engaging in long-distance trade and growing domesticated crops, construction of the first tower (4 m tall), and a defensive perimeter wallPre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) (7,300–6,000 B.C.E.) Rectangular houses with red- and white-painted floors, with caches of plastered human skullsEarly Neolithic (6,000–5,000 B.C.E.) Jericho was mostly abandoned at this timeMiddle/Late Neolithic (5,000–3,100 B.C.E.) Very minimal occupationEarly / Middle Bronze Age (3,100–1,800 B.C.E.) Extensive defensive walls constructed, rectangular towers 15-20 m long and 6-8 m tall and extensive cemeteries, Jericho destroyed circa 3300 cal BPLate Bronze Age (1,800–1,400 B.C.E.) Limited settlementAfter the Late Bronze Age, Jericho was no lo nger much of a center, but continued to be occupied on a small scale, and ruled by Babylonians, Persian Empire, the Roman Empire, Byzantine and Ottoman Empire up until the present day Tower of Jericho Jerichos tower is perhaps its defining piece of architecture. British archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon discovered the monumental stone tower during her excavations at Tel es-Sultan in the 1950s. The tower is on the western fringe of the PPNA settlement separated from it by a ditch and a wall; Kenyon suggested it was part of the towns defenses. Since Kenyons day, Israeli archaeologist Ran Barkai and colleagues have suggested the tower was an ancient astronomical observatory, one of the earliest on record. Jerichos tower is made of concentric rows of undressed stone and it was built and used between 8,300–7,800 B.C.E. It is slightly conical in form, with a base diameter of roughly 9 m (30 ft) and a top diameter of about 7 m (23 ft). It rises to a height of 8.25 m (27 ft) from its base. When excavated, parts of the tower were covered with a layer of mud plaster, and during its use, it may have been completely covered in plaster. At the base of the tower, a short passageway leads to an enclosed stairway which was also heavily plastered. A group of burials was found in the passage, but they were placed there after the buildings use. An Astronomical Purpose? The internal stairway has at least 20 stairs made up of smoothly hammer-dressed stone blocks, each over 75 centimeters (30 inches) in width, the entire width of the passageway. The stair  treads are between 15-20 cm (6-8 in) deep and each step rises nearly 39 cm (15 in) each. The slope of the stairs is about 1.8 (~60 degrees), much steeper than modern stairways which normally range between .5-.6 (30 degrees). The stairway is roofed by massive sloping stone blocks measuring 1x1 m (3.3x3.3 ft). The stairs at the top of the tower open up facing to the east, and on what would have been midsummer solstice 10,000 years ago, the viewer could watch the sunset above Mt. Quruntul in the Judean mountains. The peak of Mount Quruntul rose 350 m (1150 ft) higher than Jericho, and it is conical in shape. Barkai and Liran (2008) have argued that the conical shape of the tower was built to mimic that of Quruntul. Plastered Skulls Ten plastered human skulls have been recovered from the Neolithic layers at Jericho. Kenyon discovered seven in a cache deposited during the middle PPNB period, below a plastered floor. Two others were found in 1956, and a 10th in 1981. Plastering human skulls is a ritual ancestor worship practice known from other middle PPNB sites such as Ain Ghazal and Kfar HaHoresh. After the individual (both males and females) died, the skull was removed and buried. Later, the PPNB shamans unearthed the skulls and modeled facial features such as chin, ears, and eyelids in plaster and placing shells in the eye sockets. Some of the skulls have as many as four layers of plaster, leaving the upper skull bare. Jericho and Archaeology Tel es-Sultan was first recognized as the biblical site of Jericho a very long time ago indeed, with the earliest mention from the 4th century C.E. anonymous Christian traveler known as the Pilgrim of Bordeaux. Among the archaeologists who have worked at Jericho are Carl Watzinger, Ernst Sellin, Kathleen Kenyon, and John Garstang. Kenyon excavated at Jericho between 1952 and 1958 and is widely credited with introducing scientific excavation methodologies into biblical archaeology. Sources Barkai R, and Liran R. 2008. Midsummer Sunset at Neolithic Jericho. Time and Mind 1(3):273-283.Finlayson B, Mithen SJ, Najjar M, Smith S, Maricevic D, Pankhurst N, and Yeomans L. 2011. Architecture, sedentism, and social complexity at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A WF16, Southern Jordan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(20):8183-8188.Fletcher A, Pearson J, and Ambers J. 2008. The Manipulation of Social and Physical Identity in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic: Radiographic Evidence for Cranial Modification at Jericho and its Implications for the Plastering of Skulls. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 18(3):309–325.Kenyon KM. 1967. Jericho. Archaeology 20(4):268-275.Kuijt I. 2008. The regeneration of life: Neolithic structures of symbolic remembering and forgetting. Current Anthropology 49(2):171-197.Scheffler E. 2013. Jericho: From archaeology challenging the canon to HTS Theological Studies 69:1-10.searching for the meaning(s) of myth(s).

Friday, February 21, 2020

Humanities Ethics Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Humanities Ethics - Coursework Example This fundamental principle is what guides Immanuel Kant’s ethical system. According to Emmanuel Kant, categorical imperative is the standard of rationality upon which moral requirements are based. Categorical imperative is a formal technique that is used to evaluate any morally applicable action (Timmerman 23). In order to determine whether an action is morally right, the categorical imperative is used as a source of moral justification. Kant understood that moral law is by nature rational, impartial, and universal. For instance, an imperative is a command such as ‘Close the door!’ or ‘Come here!’ therefore; an imperative is either categorical or imperative. Kant defined Hypothetical imperatives as commands that are used to fulfill particular human goals and desires and he considered them dependent upon personal situations. As such, they are limited to specific circumstances, or to the people who have these dispositions. He argued that hypothetical im peratives are not necessarily impractical. In fact, he conceded that human beings live by these imperatives values in their everyday lives (Timmons 22). However, he noted that these imperatives are non-moral. If any action is performed as a means to an end then that action is based on a hypothetical imperative. ... On the other hand, it is categorical because it applies to those who possess the rational will without taking into consideration what ends they might have or might not have (Timmerman 57). However, its application to the rational humanity is not based on any condition that is, for any act to be deemed as a categorical imperative, it must prove to be good in itself and conforms to reason (Timmerman, 76). It must embody the ability to universalize the action. That is, in a similar circumstance, other people would act in accordance with the same rules. 4. Are the hypothetical imperatives in relation to Kant and right theories apply in the contemporary families? The main difference between categorical and hypothetical imperatives is that categorical imperative requires that we must act in accordance with it without exception. However, hypothetical imperative is limited to specific circumstances for instance; it allows that if one is tired, they are free to bed. Categorical imperative doe s not obligate humanity to undertake any particular action rather; it demands that actions should meet particular condition (Timmerman 36). Human being must be able to ensure that the maxim behind his or her action can be replicated by anyone else in a similar situation. 5. What are the relation and implication of Kant and maxim in the contemporary world? Kant figured out categorical imperative from two maxims; objectivity and respect for all persons. According to the objectivity maxim, an action is right only if would be right for any other individual in similar situation. The maxim of respect states that an act is right so long as it treats others as ‘ends in themselves’. It is important to note that categorical imperative is not directly